Saturday, May 23, 2020
Did Napoleon uphold or betrayed the ideals of the French Revolution (1799-1815) Free Essay Example, 1000 words
His strategic brilliance and shrewd tactics helped to recapture Toulon and overnight, he shot to fame. He was promoted to Brigadier-General and thereafter, he never looked back. Ã¢â¬ËHe is the sort of man of whom nature is sparing and who only appears on earth at intervals of centuriesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ (Markham, 1966). Besides being a great strategist and an expert artillery official, Napoleon was also a shrewd politician, a trait that was evident while, he led his troop to success after success in the various battles against the resurgent armies of the neighbouring countries. During the 1785 failed coup which was organised by some discontent republicans and royalist, Napoleon was given the command and he had agreed on the terms that Ã¢â¬Ëonce my sword is drawn, it would not be sheathed until order is restoredÃ¢â¬â¢ (Dugdale, 2006). Within en hours, he had restored the peace and order, effectively quelling the rebels. His support to his political leaders amply showed that he believed in upholding the new order that was established after the revolution. He was made Major general at the age of twenty six. We will write a custom essay sample on Did Napoleo n uphold or betrayed the ideals of the French Revolution (1799-1815) or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now He had become a hero with a huge following. Napoleon was a staunch nationalist and intrinsically believed in the welfare of his people. When he went to Nice to take over the command, he tried to understand their need and made efforts to alleviate their problems and boost their morale with praise. He motivated his troops to the extent that they became his most loyal followers and helped him to win many battles with Austria, Egypt, Turkey etc. He inspired his soldiers and people and restored their pride for their nation. He also edited his Courrier de lArmÃ ©e dItalie and other military gazettes from the Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux and articlesÃ¢â¬âsometimes written by Bonaparte himselfÃ¢â¬âanalyzing the current political situation in France were found among the gazettes pages2. When he came back to France, he found that his country lacked a dynamic leader who was able to look after the extended territory of France with he had increased from his various victories in the battlefield. He filled the gap by conferring himself with the title of First Consul3 in 1799 and later became Emperor. The period from 1799-1815 was one of the golden period which had made France as one of the most powerful country of the West. During this period, France not only attained military supremacy but art and literature came into prominence and established France as a leader in the field. Napoleon had made complete and clear codification of French constitution with code of civil procedure, equality of all men, penal code etc.
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
The world is so big, I want to see. This is a lot of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s dream, a person, a backpack, and a camera, a walk to the trip. You can walk in the country on the road to experience the years of precipitation and accumulation, you can also feel surging and stalwart of nature when you climbing the mountains and the sea. Fortunately, Qingdao is a place can meet all of your needs. Qingdao, located in the southern of Shandong Peninsula, is a unique coastal city. It is near the Yellow Sea, surrounded by Jiaozhou Bay, and the climate is warm winter and cool summer, so it was recognized the national historical and cultural city and famous tourist destination. Here is a red tile green trees, blue sky and sea of the city landscape and typicalÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Qingdao summer is the most lively, especially after May, the sea warm, soft sand, and there is no hot sun, is the golden season of coastal tourism. Golden Beach is where people swim and surf the favorite place to go. And if you want to play party and barbecue, the best place is silver sand beach. The eye of the Tang Island Bay can let you overlooking the scenery of Qingdao. A beautiful picture consists of meandering Jiaodong Bay, undulating hills, blue sea and European style of the city. If you go to Qingdao in summer, you must go to Laoshan. It is not only China s famous tourist mountains, but als o the famous summer resort. It is known as the sea first mountain, the main peak of Laoshan about 1132.7 meters, so it is the third peak in Shandong. Because of near the sea, mountain and sea waves matched, formed a purple sea of clouds and a mirage of the strange scene. The Oktoberfest Festival in August called Asia s largest international beer, which attracting countless people at home and abroad to come together to drink together and watch the show. Before 1998, the opening ceremony of the previous International Beer Festival was held in it. Now, It has become a permanent festivals. Badaguan celebrity house always revealed a long cultural heritage and human feelings. To the autumn season, you can also see the sturdy sycamore tree on the both sides of the road. The road will be covered with golden when the breeze blowing, as if you place yourself in
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
IBM Business Consulting Services Indian Cheque Truncation Initiative Key challenges for Indian Banks Ravi Trivedy IBM Business Consulting Services deeper deeper Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services The Indian Cheque Scenario Ã¢â¬â an IBM Point-of-View Cheque volumes will continue to increase for the next 5-7 years Ã¢â¬â All parties involved have strong reasons to continue to promote check usage Banks Ã¢â¬â significant revenue flows are tied to the use of checks Slow consumer adoption of electronic payments Ã¢â¬â cheques are free + Perception of safety Merchants, Corporates, Governments, and Non Banking Financial Institutions Ã¢â¬â due to lack of cheap, convenient alternatives and because many accounts payable and receivable systems are designed around checks. Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services Image based processing of cheques in India present several challenges Ã¢â¬â which all add up to the cost for the banking industry Geographical spread volumes impact speed of physical movement of paper (specially inter-city) Multiple languages scripts Multiple handling due to current processes in ranches Ã¢â¬â high rejects in an imaging process Legal Regulatory issues Lack of Centralized Banking systems in many banks to enable STP Potential for fraud/counterfeit cheques increases Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services The Truncation initiative will have a major impact on Payment Operations Ã¢â¬â some key recommendations Indian Model Ã¢â¬â Truncation at presentin g Bank Big Bang approach Ã¢â¬â mandatory cutover for ALL Branches Each Bank to decide itÃ¢â¬â¢s own model Ã¢â¬â Truncation at Branch or Service Branch or Outsourced Recommendations for Banks Understand volumes, current operations Develop strategy optimized operations architecture in a truncation environment Define new processes (focus on mitigating operational risk) Re-define clearing operations organization Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services RBIÃ¢â¬â¢s Working Committee on Cheque Truncation has recommended truncation at the presenting bank itself, to maximize efficiency PRESENTING BANK Big Branches DRAWEE BANK Core Core Banking Banking System System Branch Capture Data and Image One Pass readers for MICR Data, Greyscale Bitonal Images Front Back UID assigned At Teller/Behind Teller Real-time/Batch Intra-Branch Intra-Branch Cheque Clearing Cheque Clearing Clearing House System House System House IMAGE MICR ARCHIVAL PKI enabled CLEARING CLEARING CLEARING HOUSE HOUSE SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM IMAGE MICR ARCHIVAL 3 Months + 8 Years Browser based access to images for Banks Customers Images, MICR,UID2 Clearing House Interface Clearing House Interface Service Branch Service Branch Or Or Or Outsourced Service Center Outsourced Service Center Outsourced Small Branches Images, MICR,UID MIS MIS Signature Signature Verification Verification Customer Customer Statements Statements IMAGE MICR ARCHIVAL Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services Reduced costs, improved customer service and increased flexibility will drive each BankÃ¢â¬â¢s imaging decision Value realization will differ from Bank to Bank New offers of value to customers Reduced costs from re-engineered check exchange practices REALIZED VALUE Reduced costs via productivity enhancements and fraud reduction Near-term customer service enhancement 2005 2006 2007 TIME 2008 2009 2010 Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services With RTGS and Cheque truncation, Banks will potentially lose a large income leverage The truncation initiative will re-define business models Loss of float Additional cost of infrastructure Operations Recommendation for Banks Develop a fee based product strategy to offset losses Ã¢â¬â from customers, from secondary banksÃ¢â¬ ¦. differentiated service models Re-engineer Cash Management services for Corporates Create an optimized cost model for Operations Ã¢â¬â build and operate OR outsource? Utilize the opportunity to image inter-branch cheques to improve customer service reduce paper process costs Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services Technology choices and implementation models will create differentiation in services and operational costsÃ¢â¬ ¦ Each BankÃ¢â¬â¢s defined operating model is directly related to itÃ¢â¬â¢s technology choices, implementation options and costs At each Branch vs. We will write a custom essay sample on Cheque Truncation or any similar topic only for you Order Now at a service Branch Smaller cities in a region? Remote Branches? Certification of Operations is a must! Recommendations for Banks Analysis of current and expected cheque volume patterns should drive future model Optimize model with a mix and match Ã¢â¬â inhouse + outsource Select Open Architectures to enable backwards integration Security, BCP and Operations Management are CRITICAL Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services Cheque Processing and IBM Ã¢â¬â A summary view Over 90% of the 40B US cheques issued yearly are processed with IBM Solutions Ã¢â¬Å"VIEWPOINTEÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Bank of America, JPMChase IBM Joint Venture for Cheque Processing Centers +1 Billion new items stored monthly +5. 1 Million image retrievals daily Storage space occupies 2. 8 PB of data In India, the Reserve Bank uses IBM Solutions for its high speed clearing operations IBM manages Cheque clearing/processing Operations in over 12 countries Partnering with BCSIS for Cheque solutions for Banks in India Complete end-to-end CHS functionality (Applications, Infrastructure, Integration, Operations Management, Outsourcing Service Centers) Totally compliant with RBI directives, PKI security enabled Based on Open Standards Ã¢â¬â enables easy integration to Core Systems Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services IBM uses its structured methodology to enable Banks to maximize their RoI from a Cheque imaging initiative 1 1 Create the Vision Create the Vision 4 4 Review Bank Operations / Delivery strategy Review / Establish Bank Payments Strategy Obtain Stakeholder commitment 2 2 Develop Business case Develop Business case for Check applications // for Check applications image enablement image enablement Cost effectiveness vs. Business needs Time to market competitive pressures Identify Applications Systems, Storage Network Architectures 5 5 Create Implementation Plan Create Implementation Plan Application integration priorities Rational steps Business Process Organization Reengineering Coincidence with industry initiatives Applications Setup Test Applications Setup Test Setup, configure and Customise applications Integrate with Core Systems, PKI Infrastructure Integrated and User Testing Develop Training program materials Develop Operations model timelines Develop infrastructure cost model Develop Operational cost model Develop products revenue plan 3 3 Develop Infrastructure Plan Develop Infrastructure Plan 6 6 Manage Implementation Manage Implementation Program Management Ã¢â¬â Process, Change Implement connectivity Establish Organization Ã¢â¬â Process, IT Training Implement Test Security for Certification Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services Summary Ã¢â¬â Maximize your opportunities from the Cheque Truncation initiative Well prepared Banks will benefit greatly from the Cheque truncation initiative New Opportunities Improve Customer Services New Product Offerings Product Differentiation Cross-selling Revenue Higher Efficiency Fraud Savings Productivity saving s Operational cost reduction Reduction in call volumes follow-up Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 IBM Business Consulting Services Thank You ravi. trivedy@in. ibm. com deeper deeper Ã © Copyright IBM Corporation 2003 How to cite Cheque Truncation, Papers
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Communism Downfall Essay The shocking fall of communism in Eastern and Central Europe in the lateeighties was remarkable for both its rapidity and its scope. The specifics ofcommunisms demise varied among nations, but similarities in both the causes andthe effects of these revolutions were quite similar. As well, all of the nationsinvolved shared the common goals of implementing democratic systems ofgovernment and moving to market economies. In each of these nations, thecommunist regimes in power were forced to transfer that power to radicallydifferent institutions than they were accustomed to. Democracy had beenspreading throughout the world for the preceding two decades, but with a veryimportant difference. While previous political transitions had seen similarcircumstances, the actual events in question had generally occurredindividually. In Europe, on the other hand, the shift from communism was takingplace in a different context altogether. The peoples involved were not lookingto affect a narrow set of p olicy reforms; indeed, what was at stake was ahyper-radical shift from the long-held communist ideology to a western blueprintfor governmental and economic policy development. The problem inherent in thistype of monumental change is that, according to Ulrich K. Preuss, Inalmost all the East and Central European countries, the collapse ofauthoritarian communist rule has released national, ethnic, religious andcultural conflicts which can not be solved by purely economic policies(47). While tremendous changes are evident in both the governmental and economicarenas in Europe, these changes cannot be assumed to always be mutuallyreinforcing (Preuss 47). Generally it has been theorized that the mostsuccessful manner of addressing these many difficulties is the drafting of aconstitution. But what is clear is the unsatisfactory ability of a constitutionto remedy the problems of nationalism and ethnic differences. Preuss notes thatwhen the constitutional state gained favor in North America, it was founded onthe principle of the unitary state; it was not designed to address the lack ofnational identity which is found throughout Europe and which is counter to theconcept of the constitutional state (48). Measured in terms ofsocioeconomic modernization, writes Helga A. Welsh, Central andEastern European countries had reached a level that was considered conducive tothe emergence of pluralistic policies (19). It seemed that the sole reasonthe downfall of communism, as it were, took so long was the veto power of theSoviet Union. According to theories of modernization, the higher the levels ofsocioeconomic achievement, the greater the pressure for open competition and,ultimately, democracy. As such, the nations in Eastern and Central Europe wereseen as anomalies in socioeconomically highly-developed countries whereparticularly intellectual power resources have become widespread (Welsh19). Due to their longtime adherence to communist policies, these nations facedgreat difficu lty in making the transition to a pluralist system as well as amarket economy. According to Preuss, these problems were threefold: The genuineeconomic devastations wrought by the communist regimes, the transformation ofthe social and economic classes of the command economy into the social andeconomic lasses of a capitalist economy and, finally, the creation of aconstitutional structure for political entities that lack the undisputedintegrity of a nation state (48). With such problems as these to contend with inre- engineering their entire economic and political systems, the people of EastGermany seemed to be in a particularly enviable position. Economically, theywere poised to unite with one of the richest countries, having one of thestrongest economies, in the entire world. In the competition for foreigninvestment, such an alliance gave the late German Democratic Republic aseemingly insurmountable lead over other nations. In regards to the politicalaspects of unification, it effect ively left a Germany with no national or ethnicminorities, as well as having undisputed boundaries. As well, there was no needto create a constitution (although many of the pitfalls of constitution-building would have been easily-avoided due to the advantages Germany had),because the leaders of the GDR had joined the Federal Republic by accession and,accordingly, allowed its Basic Law to be extended over their territory. For allthe good that seemed to be imminent as a result of unification, many problemsalso arose regarding the political transformation that Germany was undergoing. King David And Jesus EssayThe former East Germans look upon this issue with contempt, because it is theWesterners who have control over the rules, as well as the enforcement of thoserules. This is merely one of a multitude of instances where this mistrustmanifests itself. There are also the issues of self-purification and collectiveamnesia. Due to the pervasive nature of the communist regimes surveillanceprograms and so forth, there is very little room for anyone to claim pure hands. While West Germans can claim that they are innocent by virtue of geography, EastGermans are never able to escape the suspicions that they may have been part ofthe machine. Government jobs are denied to those who were affiliated with theStasi, and private businesses also may deny employment to these citizens. Whileunification has occurred theoretically, in reality the Germany today is one ofde facto separate-but-equal citizenship. There is no denying that there havebeen many problems associated with the unification of East and West Germany. Thetransition from communist state to liberal democracy is a very difficult one,and there is no real way to predict how the German experience will turn out. AsPreuss writes, The transition from an authoritarian political regime andits concomitant command economy to a liberal democracy and a capitalist economyis as unprecedented as the short-term integration of two extremely differentsocieties one liberal-capitalist, one authoritarian-socialist in to onenation state (57). In other words, the unification of Germany is one ofthe most complicated and unprecedented historical events since the unificationof Germany. BibliographyBauer-Kaase, Petra. Germany in Transition: The Challenge of Coping withUnification. German Unification: Processes and Outcomes. M. Donald Hancockand Helga A. Welsh, eds. Boulder: Westview, 1994. 285-311. Gloebner, Gert-Joachim. Parties and Problems of Governance During Unification. GermanUnification: Processes and Outcomes. M. Donald Hancock and Helga A. Welsh, eds. Boulder: Westview, 1994. 139- 61. Preuss, Ulrich K. German Unification:Political and Constitutional Aspects. United Germany and the New Europe. Heinz D. Kurz, ed. Brookfield: Elgar, 1993. 47-58. Welsh, Helga A. TheCollapse of Communism in Eastern Europe and the GDR: Evolution, Revolution, andDiffusion. German Unification: Processes and Outcomes. M. Donald Hancockand Helga A. Welsh, eds. Boulder: Westview, 1994. 17-34.
Monday, March 23, 2020
EIGHT THEORIES OF RELIGION SECOND EDITION Daniel L. Pals University of Miami New York Oxford OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 2006 -iii- Oxford University Press, Inc., publishes works that furtherOxford University's objective of excellence in research,scholarship, and education. Oxford New YorkAuckland Cape Town Dar es Salaam Hong Kong KarachiKuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City NairobiNew Delhi Shanghai Taipei Toronto With offices inArgentina Austria Brazil Chile Czech Republic France GreeceGuatemala Hungary Italy Japan Poland Portugal SingaporeSouth Korea Switzerland Thailand Turkey Ukraine Vietnam Copyright 2006 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Published by Oxford University Press, Inc.198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016http://www.oup.com Oxford is a registered trademark of Oxford University Press All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of Oxford University Press. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Pals, Daniel L.Eight theories of religion / by Daniel L. Pals. 2nd ed.p. cm.Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-13: 0-19-530458-9 (hard : alk. paper)ISBN-13: 0-19-516570-8 (pbk. : alk. paper)ISBN 0-19-530458-6 (hard : alk. paper)ISBN 0-19-516570-5 (pbk. : alk. paper)1. Religion-Study and teaching-History. I. Pals, Daniel L. Eight theories of religion.II. Title. BL41.P36 2005 200'.7-dc22 2005050238 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper -iv- To the memory of my father, Herbert H. Pals (1916-2004). Filiis caritatem maiorem posset nullus pater habere. -v- CONTENTS Preface ix Introduction 3 1. Animism and Magic 18 E. B. TYLOR AND J. G. FRAZER 2. Religion and Personality 53 SIGMUND FREUD 3. Society as Sacred 85 eMILE DURKHEIM 4. Religion as Alienation 118 KARL MARX 5. A Source of Social Action 149 MAX WEBER 6. The Reality of the Sacred 193 MIRCEA ELIADE 7. Society's "Construct of the Heart" 229 E. E. EVANS-PRITCHARD 8. Religion as Cultural System 260 CLIFFORD GEERTZ 9. Conclusion 292 Index 325 -vii- PREFACE Over the years since it was first published, Seven Theories of Religion seems to have found a serviceable niche on the shelf of books that discuss modern efforts to explain and understand religion. Its original purpose was not just to acquaint nonspecialist readers with general patterns of interpretation but to offer a sequence of intellectual portraits centered on theorists at work, reviewing the kinds of evidence they adduce, tracing the forms of argument they advance, and appraising, amid comparison, both the agendas and achievements they promise. The focus fell on certain classic formulationsa sequence of theories that by merit and historical influence have managed to chart the main paths of discussion over the last century and more. Judging by the responses of most readers, that approach has proved helpful, especially to students and their instructors in both college and university classrooms. Accordingly, at the editors' invitation, I agreed to revisit the original and offer certain improvements. Though it (necessarily) carries a new title, this book forms a second edition of Seven Theories , revised and amplified in ways meant to enhance its overall design. While reproducing the main sequence of discussion in the original, the present work seeks to extend its reach by offering 1) a revised introduction, 2) a new chapter on the work of German social theorist Max Weber, 3) associated other revisions that bring Weber into the earlier analyses and comparisons, and 4) a revised and enlarged conclusion that traces patterns of recent inquiry against the background of these classic approaches. In addition, a few minor clarifications suggested by observant critical readers have been included. The addition of Max Weber, now the fifth in the new sequence of eight theorists, merits a brief note of explication. For all his originality and historical importance, Weber was omitted from Seven Theories , mainly because the aim of the book was to present classic theories of a pure, or ideal, type (a rationale Weber himself certainly could have appreciated). Because of their -ix- power to provoke or promote debate, the accent fell on explanations advanced in support of a single overriding thesisas in Freud's finding that all religion reduces to neurosisrather than those that rely on complex multidimensional constructs. The latter, of course, is the kind of approach that Weber preeminently represents; hence he was excluded. Over time, however, more than a few thoughtful readers have come to take a different view of this matter.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Ethical Considerations - Case Study Example Bad relations lead to often conflicts among people. In addition, the supervisor should have come up the training program to impart knowledge to all the officers on the diversity management. This will enable all the officers to appreciate globalization and more so, to maximize different knowledge, skills, and abilities from different people. With this knowledge of understanding others, he could have requested people to keep quiet instead of commanding them. By so doing, there could be no violence between the two parties. The supervisor should have given Burn an assistant officer with whom they could work together. This could reduce the possibility of Burn conflicting with the people in the party since the other officer could prevent the conflict. During research on the weakness of the officer, the supervisor should observe privacy. This is the natural right of an individual that is the foundation of legal right. This is very important to all persons because it is the necessary condition of all other freedom and personal autonomy. The administration should understand that there is the relationship between privacy, freedom and human dignity. The supervisor shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have deployed Burn to a smaller area. This is viewed as discrimination. This brings a lot of dissatisfaction among the officers or any employee leading to increased conflict as a way to release the stress. To reduce this supervisor could conduct regular training to the officers (McCarthy, 2005). The policies that the supervisors shou ld put in place include communication policies, motivational talks, training policies and dismissal policies showing the procedure through which an officer may be dismissed. Through these, officers could behave ethically at all times. In my opinion, the officers, the supervisor and the people partying are all liable for their negligence.